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Henry Taylor
Henry Taylor

B Positive (2020) Subtitles Fix


Methods: A cross-sectional, retrospective, analytical and quantitative study was performed, with an analysis of 137 medical records from January 2015 to December 2018 of women attending the High Complexity in Oncology Unit of the city of Imperatriz, state of Maranhão, Brazil. The immunohistochemical profile of tumors based on the estrogen and progesterone receptor, Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor-type 2 (HER2) overexpression and Ki67 cell proliferation index was defined, from which six molecular subtypes were determined: luminal A, luminal B-HER2 negative, luminal B-HER2 positive, triple negative, overexpression of HER2 and inconclusive.




B Positive (2020) subtitles



The 2020/21 study from NESTA which involved 450,000 children watching videos showed that 98% of viewers did not change the setting and there were zero complaints at having subtitles on screen. 40% of children already watch BBC iPlayer with the subtitles on without complaint.


Hayati, A., & Mohmedi, F. (2011). The effect of films with and without subtitles on listening comprehension of EFL learners. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42, 181-192. See abstract.


Anca Daniela Frumuselu, Sven De Maeyer, Vincent Donche, María del Mar Gutiérrez Colon Plana, Television series inside the EFL classroom: Bridging the gap between teaching and learning informal language through subtitles, Linguistics and Education,


The most sustained push for SLS on TV for reading literacy has been in India, through research, sustained TV pilots and policy (Kothari and Bandyopadhyay, 2020; forthcoming Stanford Social Innovation Review; available on request). However, the positive impact of subtitle use on reading literacy has also been affirmed in several English and non-English speaking countries. Taken together, these studies consistently prove that exposure to subtitles which match the audio directly, contribute to reading development and language acquisition.


Eye-tracking research at the University at Nottingham confirms that subtitles will be read: BISSON, M., VAN HEUVEN, W., CONKLIN, K., & TUNNEY, R. (2014). Processing of native and foreign language subtitles in films: An eye-tracking study. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35(2), 399-418.


Bisson, Marie-Josée & van Heuven, Walter J. B. & Conklin, Kathy & Tunney, Richard J. (2014). Processing of native and foreign language subtitles in films. An eye tracking study. Applied Psycholinguistics 35.2, 399-418. (First published online in 2012)


Frumuselu, Anca Daniela & De Maeyer, Sven & Donche, Vincent & del Mar Gutiérrez Colon Plana, María (2015). Television series inside the EFL classroom: Bridging the gap between teaching and learning informal language through subtitles. Linguistics and Education 32, 107-117.


Vulchanova, Mila & Aurstad, Lisa M. G. & Kvitnes, Ingrid E. N. & Eshuis, Hendrik (2015). As naturalistic as it gets: subtitles in the English classroom in Norway. Frontiers in Psychology 5, Article 1510.


Frumuselu, Anca Daniela (2018). The implications of Cognitive Load Theory and exposure to subtitles in English Foreign Language (EFL). Translation and Translanguaging in Multilingual Contexts 4.1, 55-76. Reprinted 2020 in: Incalcaterra McLoughlin, Laura et al. (eds.), Audiovisual Translation in Applied Linguistics. Educational Perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 58-78.


Kruger, Jan-Louis & Doherty, Stephen & Fox, Wendy & de Lissa, Peter (2018). Multimodal measurement of cognitive load during subtitle processing. Same-language subtitles for foreign-language viewers. In: Lacruz, Isabel & Jääskeläinen, Riitta (eds.), Innovation and Expansion in Translation Process Research. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 267-294.


Acaro Jiménez, Lorena Mishel (2019). The effects of watching videos with and without English subtitles as a supplementary material to foster the writing productive skill of EFL in a high school. A comparative study. Trabajo de titulación: Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja.


Alharthi, Thamer (2020). Can Adults Learn Vocabulary through Watching Subtitled Movies? An Experimental Corpus-Based Approach. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies 9.3, 219-230.


Ambele, Eric A. & Abam, Fedelis T. (2020). Enhancing Pronunciation Learning through Intralingual Movie Subtitling in a Thai University Context. Rangsit Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 7.2, 60-69.


Balci, Leanna Fry & Rich, Peter J. & Roberts, Brian (2020). The effects of subtitles and captions on an interactive information literacy tutorial for English majors at a Turkish university. Journal of Academic Librarianship 46, article 102078.


Dumlao, Kenneth Christopher S. & Alfonso, Ruth C. & Paguirigan, Elgin S. & Subia, Gener S. (2020). The Efficacy of Bimodal Subtitling in Improving the Listening Comprehension of English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners. International Journal of English Literature and Social Sciences 5.6, 2196-2201.


Fievez, Isabeau & Montero Perez, Maribel & Cornillie, Frederik & Desmet, Piet (2020). Vocabulary Learning Through Viewing Captioned or Subtitled Videos and the Role of Learner- and Word-Related Factors. CALICO Journal 37.3, 233-253.


Gouleti, Aikaterini & Dimitriadis, Giorgos & Kokonis, Michalis (2020). Exploring the Educational Potentials of Language Learning with Netflix Tool. An Eye-Tracking Study. Ex-centric Narratives. Journal of Anglophone Literature, Culture and Media 4, 113-136.


Kruger-Roux, Helena & Angu, Pineteh, E. (2020). Bimodal and Unimodal Comprehension and Reception of Discipline-Specific Audiovisual Texts Among Students in a Faculty of Health Sciences. International Journal of Learning in Higher Education 27.2, 63-77.


Lee, Minjin & Révész, Andrea (2020). Promoting Grammatical Development through Captions and Textual Enhancement in Multimodal Input-Based Tasks. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 42.3, 625-651.


Liao, Sixin & Kruger, Jan-Louis & Doherty, Stephen (2020). The impact of monolingual and bilingual subtitles on visual attention, cognitive load, and comprehension. Journal of Specialised Translation 33, 70-98.


Majuddin, Elvenna (2020). Incidental and intentional acquisition of multiword expressions from audio-visual input. The effects of typographically enhanced captions and repetition. Ph.D. Thesis: Victoria University of Wellington.


Matthew, Gordon (2020). The effect of adding same-language subtitles to recorded lectures for non-native, English speakers in e-learning environments. Research in Learning Technology 28, article 2340.


Nasimi, Shabnam (2020). Vocabulary Learning Promotion through Watching Subtitled Movies among EFL Learners in Iran. In: 4th International Conference on Language, Literature, History and Civilization. September 15, 2020. Tbilisi, Georgia. Proceedings.


Pattemore, Anastasia & Suárez, Maria del Mar & Muñoz, Carmen (2020). Exploring L2 TV mode preferences and perceptions of learning. In: Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete et al. (eds.), CALL for widening participation. Short papers from EUROCALL 2020. Voillans: Research-publishing.net, 272-278.


Yang, Peter (2020). The Cognitive and Psychological Effects of YouTube Video Captions and Subtitles on Higher-Level German Language Learners. In: Freiermuth, Mark R. & Zarrinabadi, Nourollah (eds.), Technology and the Psychology of Second Language Learners and Users. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 83-112.


Dizon, Gilbert & Thanyawatpokin, Benjamin (2021). Language learning with Netflix. Exploring the effects of dual subtitles on vocabulary learning and listening comprehension. CALL-EJ 22.3, 52-65.


Baranowska, Karolina (2022). Exposure to English as a foreign language through subtitled videos. The impact of subtitles and modality on cognitive load, comprehension, and vocabulary acquisition. Ph.D. Thesis: Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan.


Liao, Sixin & Yu, Lili & Kruger, Jan-Louis & Reichle, Erik D. (2022). The impact of audio on the reading of intralingual versus interlingual subtitles. Evidence from eye movements. Applied Psycholinguistics 43.1, 237-269.


Annex C. Forced content illustrates the use of itts:forcedDisplay in an application in which a single document contains both hard of hearing captions and translated foreign language subtitles, using itts:forcedDisplay to display translation subtitles always, independently of whether the hard of hearing captions are displayed or hidden.


Figure 5 below illustrates the use of forced content, i.e. itts:forcedDisplay and displayForcedOnlyMode. The content with itts:forcedDisplay="true" is the French translation of the "High School" sign. The content with itts:forcedDisplay="false" are French subtitles capturing a voiceover.


When the user selects French as the playback language but does not select French subtitles, displayForcedOnlyMode is set to "true", causing the display of the sign translation, which is useful to any French speaker, but hiding the voiceover subtitles as the voiceover is heard in French.


If the user selects French as the playback language and also selects French subtitles, e.g. if the user is hard-of-hearing, displayForcedOnlyMode is set to "false", causing the display of both the sign translation and the voiceover subtitles.


In the context of this specification, text alternative is intended primarily to support users of the subtitles who cannot see images (the non-text content). Since the images of an Image Profile Document Instance usually represent subtitle or caption text, the guidelines of Text that has been rendered to a graphic for typographical effect at [HTML] are appropriate.


Bacillus subtilis, known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants, humans and marine sponges.[3][4][5][6] As a member of the genus Bacillus, B. subtilis is rod-shaped, and can form a tough, protective endospore, allowing it to tolerate extreme environmental conditions. B. subtilis has historically been classified as an obligate aerobe, though evidence exists that it is a facultative anaerobe. B. subtilis is considered the best studied Gram-positive bacterium and a model organism to study bacterial chromosome replication and cell differentiation. It is one of the bacterial champions in secreted enzyme production and used on an industrial scale by biotechnology companies.[3][4][5] 041b061a72


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